Abir — a Practical Torah

by

Today we celebrate the joyous festival of Purim.  As others have pointed out, Purim is not a celebration of the death of Haman(y”sh).  Haman was hung nine months before the 14-th of Adar.  Nor do we celebrate the thwarting of Haman’s plot to exterminate the Jews.  Haman’s plot died with him.  With the Persian army ordered to remain in barracks and Mordechai ascendant in the capital, who in his right mind would dare to attack the Jews?  To do so would invite retaliation from the second most powerful man in the kingdom!

So if we are not celebrating the death of Haman(y”sh) and the thwarting of his plot, what ARE we celebrating?  Well, the answer is pretty obvious from the Megillah itself.  On the 13th and 14th of Adar, the Jews, who had been given a royal guarantee that the Persian authorities would not intervene, gathered together and launched an attack against their enemies throughout the Persian Empire, slaughtering seventy five thousand men throughout the kingdom and eight hundred in the capital, including the ten sons of Haman.  There is no need to mention that the women and children of the enemy were likewise slaughtered.  We can learn this from the Megillah itself.

The Jews took none of the spoils from their slaughtered enemies.  Why is this?  Because the enemies in question were Amalekites.  The Torah commandment to extirpate Amalek includes not only the commandment to mercilessly slaughter Amalekites regardless of age and gender until none remain anywhere in the world, but also the commandment to destroy all the property of Amalek.  Spoils should not be taken from them.  It seems to me that taking arms, war materiel and funds to purchase both from dead Amalekites would be permissible under the rubric of pikuah nefesh and in order to further the mizvah by exterminating more Amalekites.  However, from the Megillah it is obvious that the Jews of Esther’s time had no need to avail themselves of such leniencies.

Consider what this implies.  Would any of today’s Jewish communities, even the ones in the Holy Land, have the wherewithal to gather together and slaughter the enemies of the Jewish People in their tens of thousands without the aid of any army?  Do today’s yeshiva bochurim, even in the dati leumi community, have the martial skills and arms to do this?  The answer, of course, is a resounding “no”.

In and of itself this should tell you that our communities have drawn much further away from the true spirit of Torah than even the assimilated, persianized Jews of Esther’s Shushan.  The chief reason for this are our methods of Torah study.  Amid the oppressions and humiliations of the past two thousand years, with Jews locked in ghettoes, surrounded on all sides by raging mobs of murderous goyim, prohibited from bearing arms and completely unable to defend themselves, the study of Torah became the sole means of ensuring continued national survival.  Only by clinging to the Torah, by ordering every tiny detail of their lives in a manner that would remind them of their Judaism, could our ancestors survive the bitterness of the exile.  Thus Torah study became solely a legal study.  Generations of rabbinical students studied solely those aspects that would enable the survival of Jewish culture, growing up uniformly as skilled lawyers capable of directing every little detail of their community’s day-to-day life.

However, the Holy Torah is not merely a book of law.  The Holy Torah is the sum of all knowledge in the universe.  Just as we can ground legal studies in the Torah, so too can military studies, administration and science be grounded therein.

This does not mean that we should seek to acquire all knowledge solely from the text of the Torah itself.  While the Holy Torah surely contains all the knowledge we seek, we are not adequate to the task of discerning all we need to know solely from the holy text itself.  Therefore we must, due to our inadequacies, apply the processes of secular science and knowledge acquisition.  If goyim discover some new principle or invent some clever, useful new device, we should certainly borrow it at once.  And if the processes of secular science and engineering lead us to some new knowledge, we should certainly apply it with alacrity.  Doing so increases the power and renown of the Jewish People and thus elevates the honor of the Holy Torah and increases the honor of Hashem.  And when we have done so, lest we become arrogant and think that we have discovered something truly new, we should always return to the text of the Holy Torah and sanctify our knowledge by showing how it is alluded to in the text itself.

Now, we know very well that our ancestors were formidable warriors.  We also know that before the invention of firearms, all nations and cultures created and practiced martial arts systems based on the principles of anatomy, the weapons available to them and the philosophies upon which the core of their civilization was based.

The martial arts of Western Europe died a slow death as firearms developed and improved and as centralizing nation-states sought to disarm the population and monopolize the tools of violence.  The martial arts of the Far East, on the other hand, had no time to die a slow death.  Japan went from swords to aircraft carriers in less than a hundred years.  Even as Japanese battleships sank the entire Russian navy at Tsushima, there were still old men alive in Tokyo who remembered Saigo Takamori’s quixotic attempt to pit swords and bushido against quick firing artillery and bolt action rifles.  And as the newly-disarmed citizens of Western nations sought means to defend themselves against criminals, it was only natural that they would turn to the vibrant martial arts of the East.

Responding to the new needs of a new era, Japanese masters modernized, systematized, updated and exported their samurai heritage.  Jujitsu systems were the first to make the jump across the ocean, with Jujitsu schools appearing in Europe and America as early as the 1880s.  Judo, a sporty “clean-up” of Jujitsu, and Karate, a systematization and modernization of Okinawan peasant fighting techniques, followed suit rapidly.  By the late 1890s, westerners were already teaching martial arts derivatives adopted to their particular needs, such as Bartitsu.  By the beginning of the twentieth century, Western governments were adopting Asian techniques as a means of training elite soldiers and policemen in hand-to-hand combat, developing effective and easy to learn martial arts systems such as Sambo.  Thus it is solely due to a combination of historical accidents and massive ignorance that we see martial arts as primarily an Asian phenomenon.

Given the fact that every culture in history has at one point or another developed martial arts systems, it is reasonable to ask whether there existed such a thing as a Jewish martial art.  The answer, of course, is not only did it exist, but it was extremely effective.  The Torah itself tells us so.  At the news that Hammurabi’s army has plundered Sodom and taken Lot captive, Avraham Avinu sets off in pursuit with his elite bodyguard of 318 Torah students, overtakes the Babylonians after a  series of forced marches and defeats them in a surprise attack at night.  King David, a great Torah scholar, personally kills hundreds of Philistine warriors, presenting their severed foreskins to Saul as token of his martial prowess.  There certainly existed a martial arts system, grounded in Torah and based on the concepts of Jewish mysticism, that was practiced by these men not only as a means to ensure physical prowess, but also as a method of Torah study.

Obviously, with two thousand years of persecution in situations where Jewish self-defense of any kind was essentially impossible and any attempt at martial training would bring on the massacre of the entire community, a Jewish martial art would have died out.  However, there is one man who claims that this is not entirely so.  This man, Yehoshuah Sofer, has compiled and systematized a Torah-based martial arts system he calls “Abir”.  Abir is entirely practical and highly effective, as can be seen, for example, in this video.

Yehoshuah Sofer claims that this art is based on the martial arts tradition preserved by the isolated Habbani Jewish community of Yemen, and that this tradition itself hearkens back all the way to King David and Avraham Avinu.  Scoffers point out that Yehoshuah Sofer happens to hold a 7-th dan  in Kuk Sool Won and that the circular movements and distinctive “hands-free” grapples of Abir as taught by Yehoshua Sofer strongly resemble corresponding techniques in Hapkido and Kuk Sool.  Based on this, they posit that Abir is somehow “fake” or “not authentic”.

Now, this argument is frankly ridiculous.  First of all, since when is outward similarity of technique proof of anything?  The grappling techniques in the Codex Wallerstein resemble Aikido and Jujitsu, while the longsword technique bears a striking resemblance to Japanese swordsmanship.  Would some imbecile declare based on these resemblances that this seminal fechtbuk, written in Germany circa 1470 C.E., is somehow based on martial arts systems codified on the opposite side of the world centuries later?

The fact is, given human anatomy and the laws of physics, there are only so many efficient ways to punch, kick and throw an opponent.  There are only so many ways to hyperextend, break or dislocate joints, only so many ways to upset a fighter’s balance and so forth.  Effective martial arts systems will naturally come to resemble one another.  And would it not stand to reason, flipping the scoffers’ argument on its head, that a man seeking to modernize and systematize a half-forgotten family tradition would find a martial art that most strongly resembles it and train in it in order to “fill in the gaps”?

The “hands free” grappling and throwing techniques of Abir and Kuk Sool are of great antiquity, hearkening back to the days when martial arts assumed a combat between two heavily armored, sword-armed opponents.  In such combat, a man who lost or broke his sword had to rely on secondary weapons such as a dagger, yet had to bring them to bear against very small targets, such as gaps in the joints of armor.  Since punching and kicking an armored opponent is an exercise in futility, one had perforce to grapple with him, upset his balance, dislocate his joints and otherwise place him in a position where a small weapon such as a dagger could be applied.  Yet since one’s hands were occupied holding a dagger, a shield, a spear shaft or other such implement, the grappling had to be performed by wrapping one’s limbs around the enemy rather than by grabbing him with one’s hands.  In fact, the very presence of such techniques tells us that a martial arts system is rooted in a tradition going back centuries if not millennia.  Who is to say with certainty which tradition it is?

Secondly, what in Heaven’s name is a “fake” or “not authentic” martial art?  Techniques have been borrowed back and forth from time immemorial.  Kuk Sool is itself a compilation of several Korean martial arts, with the primary component being Hapkido.  Hapkido, in turn, is a twentieth-century modernization of ancient Korean arts with heavy borrowing from Judo and Jujitsu, which are themselves compilations of earlier samurai techniques, which are based on ancient Chinese martial arts, and so on down into prehistory.   Going forward in the opposite direction, does the fact that they borrow heavily from Judo, Karate and Jujitsu make Sambo any less Russian or Krav Maga any less Israeli?  Trying to figure out whether a martial arts system is “authentic” is an exercise somewhat similar to an attempt to determine whether a firearm design is “authentic”.  At best, such frivolity is of use to a small number of highly specialized historians.  At worst, it is a complete waste of time.

The only criteria that matter for a martial art are the same as the criteria for any other infantry weapon: whether or not it works well in almost any circumstances and whether or not it fits with the needs of the practitioner.  Abir is effective.  It is firmly grounded in Torah principles.  Its grand master is a pious Breslover hassid who wears begged ivri on a daily basis.  Therefore, it qualifies both as a Jewish martial art and a method of Torah study.  Case closed.

If we seek to revive the Torah of Eretz Yisrael and to build a true Jewish State, we must perforce revive a Torah-based martial tradition.  If we do not do so, we end up with the perversions of secular Zionism, with its near-worship of muscular Hebrew-speaking goyish ignoramuses brandishing rifles and its contempt for the helpless frum Jew.  King David and Avraham Avinu spent far more time practicing Torah as a military art than they did studying Torah as a legal system.  And so should we.  May the day soon come when our educational system, beginning in kindergarten, teaches effective Torah-based martial arts and military skills, both as a means to instill pride in our heritage and as a means to build the physical courage, fitness and skill necessary to maintain a true Jewish State in Eretz Yisrael.

14 Adar 5770

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13 Responses to “Abir — a Practical Torah”

  1. inquirer Says:

    Sorry Mike, while I agree with you on the need for a practical military-focused study on the Torah (including unarmed and close combat techniques), I disagree that Abir is the real deal.

    Leaving aside the similarity to KSW and Silat (especially the forms), the training does not seem that effective.

    My reasoning is that I don’t see any pressure testing or sparring happening in any of the videos. Most of the techniques that he demonstrates seem to be quite low-percentage and difficult to pull off against an aggressive and strong attacker. Serious martial arts always involve hard sparring and there doesn’t seem to be any here.

    Men should fight for practice, not play with forms or “tag” spar. In a military situation, wearing body armor and gear I can see them even being more difficult to perform.

    Basically, it doesn’t seem practical. What do you think about Krav Maga? Perhaps it could be developed and co-opted with the Abir philosophy?

    What about Krav Maga?

  2. General Raoul Salan Says:

    “There is no need to mention that the women and children of the enemy were likewise slaughtered.”

    Bet you just can’t wait to experience the joys of impaling babies on your bayonet! How manly!

  3. Vienna Mike Says:

    Inquirer, you are comparing apples to oranges. Abir appears to be a full spectrum “soft” art with universal applications. In addition, it is a method of Torah study, enhancing the capacity of the practitioner to practise mitzvot by imbuing him with holiness and enabling him to embody lofty kabbalistic concepts through martial arts practice. As such, it almost certainly requires decades to master, but has the advantage of limitless versatility and extreme lethality with minimum expended effort. Krav Maga is an abbreviated “hard” military combat system designed for speedy mastery and ease of retention with minimal refresher training. It gives its practitioners high effectiveness in a small subset of common scripted combat situations, but it does so at the expense of universality.

    Someone starting from zero will attain effectiveness within two years or less with an abbreviated “hard” system like Krav Maga, but will then plateau. As the practitioner ages and his body weakens, his capacity will decline precipitously. On the other hand, someone starting from zero with an art like Abir will take at least a decade to attain effectiveness, but will then continue to progress indefinitely. As the practitioner ages, he will retain effectiveness by developing superior technique. Further, Krav Maga will do absolutely nothing for the practitioner spiritually, while Abir will certainly enhance his spiritual growth and produce a new understanding of and emphasis on Torah and mitzvot.

    In order to have a fair comparison between something like Abir and Krav Maga, one would have to ask Mori Sofer to develop an abbreviated military quick-mastery system based on Abir. The result is likely to look a lot like the abbreviated Hapkido practiced by the ROK Army.

    Given this, if I had to develop a general educational program for the Jewish community, I would introduce Krav Maga immediately at all grade levels, with at least two hours of instruction per day, in order to produce a large pool of persons who can basically defend themselves. I would introduce Abir in grade school only and would continue to expand instruction year by year as students aged, in order to ultimately create an effective martial arts culture based on Torah.

    Now, regarding the general impression of the effectiveness of Abir as a fighting system. First of all, I do not find any of the demonstrated techniques to be either “low percentage” or particularly difficult to master in comparison with other similar arts, such as judo, jujitsu, hapkido, etc. Furthermore, if performed at full speed against an aggressive attacker, a very high proportion of the techniques demonstrated in the Abir videos would be instantly lethal or highly debilitating. I call your attention to the extensive manipulation of the head and neck, as well as the focus on the larynx and the spinal chord as targets demonstrated by Mori Sofer in his videos. Insofar as training, I cannot speak to the effectiveness of Sofer’s training methods as I do not attend his dojo. At any rate, this is a completely separate issue from the effectiveness of the art itself.

    Regarding body armor, I disagree with you. Modern body armor with ceramic inserts makes the wearer effectively immune to body blows, provides good protection to the throat and neck and provides partial protection to the groin. Combined with a helmet, the result is to render the wearer immune to 90% of what your typical “hard” school teaches. Militaries have begun to recognize that the return of body armor to the battlefield requires a significant modification to military martial arts systems, with a new focus on wrestling as opposed to striking. The Americans’ new MACS system, for example, introduces a wealth of grappling techniques borrowed from freestyle wrestling and jujitsu. In general, I expect that trend to continue as long as materials science continues to provide materials light enough to be worn by the infantryman yet strong enough to resist many infantry weapons. The advances in fuel cells, batteries and magnets, if they continue at the current rates, are likely to exacerbate the problem shortly by introducing practical powered armor to the battlefield.

    At any rate, this is all philosophy. The main answer to your question is that there is a place for both Abir and Krav Maga because they are two very different animals and serve two very different purposes.

  4. Vienna Mike Says:

    Well, “general”, I know you would rather see goyim impaling Jewish babies upon bayonets than vice versa. But as for myself, given that someone has to impale someone’s babies, I would rather the Jews be the ones doing the impaling. As for enjoyment, I do not enjoy killing, nor would any Torah-true Jew. But I would kill every goy in the world without second thought or hesitation in order to spare the tears of even a single Jewish child. And yes, I would sleep like a baby afterward.

  5. General Raoul Salan Says:

    “Well, “general”, I know you would rather see goyim impaling Jewish babies upon bayonets than vice versa. But as for myself, given that someone has to impale someone’s babies, I would rather the Jews be the ones doing the impaling.”

    To assume that someone’s babies have to be impaled is a big assumption indeed. But then such black and white views fit with fanaticism. You happen to be a militarist fanatic AND a religious fanatic so there you go!

    “As for enjoyment, I do not enjoy killing, nor would any Torah-true Jew.”

    Yet you are one of the few people who have “discovered” that such genocidal killing is indeed “necessary” just as Hitler “discovered”.

    “But I would kill every goy in the world without second thought or hesitation in order to spare the tears of even a single Jewish child. And yes, I would sleep like a baby afterward.”

    As Jews were persecuted in medieval times, many of their persecutors happened to be of the mindset that hurting such infidels was worth it to protect even a single Christian. Do you see the pattern of bigotry here?

  6. Vienna Mike Says:

    What meaningless drivel you write, “general”. As R. Kahane (z”l) liked to point out, we live in the Middle East, not in the Middle West. We are surrounded on all sides by a sea of goyim whose religion dictates our extermination and who have proven their intent to exterminate us all on numerous occasion over some 1600 years. This, in and of itself, is sufficient to designate said goyim as Amalek. At which point the entire concept of “bigotry” flies out the window, along with all the rest of your man-made Western morality. I would laugh if I did not know that you are a Nazi simply trying to score points to prove to your buddies how “evil” the evil kikes are. You don’t even believe in the nonsense you are pretending to adhere to.

    Hashem, and not you or any Western “humanist” philosopher, is the sole arbiter of what is and is not moral. Obeying the Law of G-d is moral. Disobeying is immoral. Hashem commands us to extirpate Amalek. End of story and end of argument.

  7. Ehav Ever Says:

    Concerning the issues of whether Abir is effective or not there are several issues here.

    1) No video on the internet gives anyone a full picture of whether a fighting technique is effective or not. That only comes from a person actually physically training in said system. The reason being that the system is based on a syllabus of training and a video is just that a video. Besides it is not exactly the smartest thing to place all of one techniques on the internet where they can be learned by those one may have to go against.

    2) I currently train in Abir and I have done Karate, Krav Maga, and Capoeira I know for a fact that Abir is effective against other systems. Yet, everyone knows that there are effective techniques and then there is the actual person’s ability to correctly, quickly, and efficiently apply those techniques. Techniques are meaningless without a practitioner who is able to apply the right techniques for the right situation, and there are some techniques that are for quick learning and others for more advanced students.

    3) A person who trains in any form of unarmed combat knows that they have to be prepared for all possible situations. No one knows what an attacker will do so an effective system is one that has a number of varied ways to pull off defensive or offensive moves. Some moves are learned by way of applying then in difficult to pull off situations so if they were used in less difficult situation they are easier to perform. For example, A spinning kick is not an easy thing for some people to master, and it is not a technique that is practical in all situations. Yet, there are some situations where doing it in its full or even half form is effective. Also, the balence learned from having to learned such a thing is highly useful, even if the kick itself is not always used.

    Also, Abir is effective enough to be recognized by Israel’s highest sport authority and that is the Wingate Institute.

  8. Vienna Mike Says:

    Ehav, no video can give anyone the full picture of any martial art, this is true. But those who have practiced martial arts seriously can look at a video of a demonstration by a purported grand master and see whether or not it’s bullshit. For example, the Abir website used to have a ludicrous kata video with a ridiculous toy sword that was shaped like a Chinese Dao and looked and behaved like it was made out of tinfoil. That video was utter bullshit and has since been taken down. I sincerely hope that the Aluf Abir’s next attempt to revive the sword as a Jewish martial arts weapon uses real weapons that would have been used in the time of Bar Kokhba, the gladius (http://www.albion-swords.com/swords/albion/nextgen/sword-roman-mainz.htm) and the spatha(http://www.albion-swords.com/swords/albion/nextgen/sword-roman-auxilia-spatha.htm), or the Arabic-style sabers his great-grandfathers would have carried. On the other hand, the hand-to-hand videos are obviously NOT bullshit.

  9. Ehav Ever Says:

    Greetings Vienna Mike,

    Concerning your comments on the Sword video – First, the type of sword in the video you are talking is used by a number of people for non combative forms of simulated combat. The video is still up on the YouTube pages and shows up in a couple videos about Abir. It is not on the site at the moment due a revamping of the site, and some videos being integrated into more complete videos. Anyone who knows anything about Middle Eastern knife and sword techniques knows that many of them were combined with dances in order to preserve the style of movement. Thus when someone sees a Jambiya dance, one knows that the movements of how Jambiyas were once used is preserved in a form of a dance and no one argues about the purpose of it as well as the fact that most Jambiyas used for this purpose are worthy for real combat.

    The entire purpose of that video was not about showing how to use a sword in combat, but a display of the movements that were combined with a sword dance. I.e. Abir is a combination of both combat methods and the culture that preserved the movements used for the combat. Anything that is claimed to be a Tavnit Tenuah (תבנית תנועה) or a Kata as some call it are bullshit if done in a real fight the way they are learned. No one would start doing a choreographed group of forms in a real fight, but some of these are effective in helping a person, especially beginners, remember the type of movements needed in easy to learn package. It is then that a person start using the movements for more advanced training. Besides, the video was never claimed to be combat orientated, it is only outside people who are claiming what it is and what it isn’t. That is like claiming that a combat orientated Capoeira person would use a Jinga in a real fight. No one claims that, they use the jinga only to learn certain types of movements.

  10. Ehav Ever Says:

    I made a mistake in my previoius comment. What I meant to write was.

    Thus when someone sees a Jambiya dance, one knows that the movements of how Jambiya style weapons were once used is preserved in a form of a dance and no one argues about the purpose of it as well as the fact that most Jambiyas used for this purpose are NOT worthy for real combat.

  11. Vienna Mike Says:

    Ehav, I am a practical guy. My business for virtually all of my adult life was to either kill people directly or to help others to kill people in various ways. To me, and to people like me, Abir has two uses.

    1) As a means to help rebuild a healthy Jewish identity and culture

    2) As a means of killing people as quickly and efficiently as possible.

    I would suggest to you that the vast majority of people who look at Abir seriously will have either one or both these purposes in mind. Therefore, I would advise you against putting this video back on the site. If you want swordsmanship, get a real weapon and demonstrate real, lethal techniques showing both precision and power. In the process, you will find the vast difference in handling between the toy sport sword and the real weapon. You will also find that these differences necessitate significant adjustments in technique, far more so than is required between empty hand kata and practical hand to hand combat. I am sure there are plenty of straw bundles and palm-leaf mats to serve as Holy Land equivalents of the tatami bundle normally used in such demonstrations. And if you want to make things TRULY practical, demonstrate the amazing similarity in technique between the sword and the police baton when the latter is used with the intent not to subdue but to quickly kill.

  12. Ehav Ever Says:

    Greeting Vienna Mike,

    Once again you are missing the point of the video. You are assuming the video about swordsmanship vs. a riqud and tavnith tanuah. A Jambiya dance, for example, is not about swordsmanship as much as it about the movements that are involved in the riqud.

    Being practical about combat and its uses doesn’t negate a cultural element that is used to pass on movements important to system. The people who have the most problem with a simple video of a riqud and a tavnit tanuah, or an instrument used in said riqud and tavnit tanuah, are going to have problems with anything that they perceive to be outside of the realm of strict combat training.

    Abir is not in the context that most of the western world has come to define a martial art. Besides the combination of Torah, Halakhah, fighting techniques, and tarbuth of Am Yisrael as a focus makes it different than other systems that are simply combat orientated. It fullfils the two elements you mentioned of:

    1) As a means to help rebuild a healthy Jewish identity and culture
    2) As a means of killing people as quickly and efficiently as possible

    Every student who has learned in Abir, even for a short time would agree that it meets both of the above criteria.

    I have sparred against people who have done strict combat oriented system and their adherance to strict combat without Torah, Halakhah, and the tarbuth of Am Yisrael didn’t make them more effective than things I learn in Abir from movements that I was taught to take from our riquddim AND the skills of HOW to translate them into effective hand to hand combat. The fact that Abir is recognized by Israel’s highest martial art/sports authority is proof enough that the system as a whole is effectively taught with all of its various elements of teaching.

    If a person’s goal is to simple go into a system that is just fighting without anything else attached, including riqudim and tavnith tanuah, to it simply put Abir may not be for them. Both of these elements are what has made it easy for both children and adults to progress fast within the system.

  13. Friend Says:

    –But I would kill every goy in the world without second thought or hesitation in order to spare the tears of even a single Jewish child.

    This is a holy sentiment expressed by Tzadikim in all times. There was once a Jew who sought an audience with the Lubavitcher Rebbe zt”l in his office, but on seeing that the door was closed, he decided to slip his request under the Rebbe’s door. A few seconds later the Rebbe noticed and came to pick the letter up from the floor. When the visitor realized that he had interrupted and caused the Rebbe to bend down, he began to apologize profusely.
    The Rebbe responded, ‘This is the reason that I am here, to pick up each and every Jew’

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